Many pesticides are used in the country that are already banned in the rest of the world, because they pollute the air, soil and water, in addition to affecting health.
In Mexico pesticides are in the air, in the water and on the ground; also in harmful amounts in food. Many pesticides are not allowed in most European countries where laws are stricter to preserve public health and ecosystems.
Under pressure from civil associations and the National Human Rights Commission, the Government of Mexico is in the process of taking 360 pesticides linked to 60 molecules off the market.
The sensitivity of the pesticide situation in Mexico has prompted the National Human Rights Commission to intervene.
On December 26, 2018, it issued recommendation 82/2018 “On the violation of human rights to food, clean water, a healthy environment and health, due to non-compliance with the general obligation of due diligence to restrict the use of highly dangerous pesticides, to the detriment of the general population ”.
The Government of Mexico had the obligation to comply with the recommendation by integrating an inter-ministerial working group in which SEMARNAT, the Secretariat of Agriculture and Rural Development (SADER), the National Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS) and the Service National Health, Safety and Food Quality (SENASICA).
Among the 360 pesticides that should be prohibited in the decree are: Alachlor, Paraquat, Metamsodium and Methamidophos.
What is a pesticide?
According toInternational Code of Conduct for the Distribution and Use of Pesticides from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), a pesticide is:
“Any substance or mixture of substances intended to prevent, destroy or control any pest, including vectors of human or animal diseases, unwanted species of plants or animals that cause damage or that interfere in any other way with production, elaboration, storage, transport or commercialization of food, agricultural products, wood and wood products or animal feed, or that can be administered to animals to combat insects, arachnids or other pests in or on their bodies ”.
“The term includes substances intended to be used as plant growth regulators, defoliants, desiccants, agents to reduce fruit density or agents to prevent premature fruit drop, and substances applied to crops before or after harvest to protect the product against deterioration during storage and transport ”.
Effects of pesticides
Dr. Antonio Guerrero López, who was deputy director of the 89 Clinic of the IMSS in Guadalajara, and of the General Hospital of Zapopan, made a count of the damage caused by pesticides in the population, underlining that there is no acceptable minimum, since its origin toxic substances.
* Various types of cancer:
Especially cancer of the breast, pancreas, testicle, ovaries, colon, rectum, bladder, lung, brain, lymphomas, leukemias, and lymphomas.
Pesticides decrease the ability of T cells to kill tumor cells, and suppress tumor necrosis factor alpha that regulates immune cells. They induce mutations in the P-53 and K-ras genes that are related to colorectal and pancreatic cancer.
* Alterations to the nervous system:
Anxiety crisis, depression, psychosis, obsessive compulsive disorder, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, polyneuropathies. Trigeminal neuralgia, multiple sclerosis, Ataxia.
* Alterations of the intellectual area in children:
Hyperactivity, decreased IQ, attention deficit disorder, learning disorders, reading comprehension difficulties, autism.
* Immune system disorders:
Hashimoto's thyroiditis, asthma, thymus shrinkage, hypothyroidism. Susceptibility to infections, rhinitis, hemolytic anemia, purples, alterations of the intestinal flora, induces allergies such as gluten intolerance.
* Congenital malformations of all kinds due to its genotoxicity:
Damage to the genes produces cardiac malformations, myelomeningocele, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, cleft lip, low birth weight. Pesticides easily reach the fetus and cause serious disturbances.
* Endocrine and reproductive system disorders:
Abortions, menstruation disorders, endometriosis, decreased libido, early menopause, early puberty, ovarian atrophy, decreased fertility, metrorrhagia (heavy uterine bleeding). Toxic-induced genetic alterations can be transmitted to the next generations. The toxins can pass into breast milk, and affect the baby.
* Disorders in men:
Erectile dysfunction, decreased testosterone levels, decreased fertility, damage to sperm.
* Other alterations:
Pulmonary fibrosis, phototoxicity, Alzheimer's, parkinson's, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, pancreatitis,
* Serious chronic diseases:
Kidney failure, liver failure, liver cirrhosis. Osteoporosis, increased cholesterol and triglycerides.
* Hidden disorders:
Macular degeneration of the retina, cataract, optic nerve atrophy, conjunctivitis.
* Cardiac disorders:
Coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathy.