By Dr. José Carlos Corbatta
When I first learned of White Fang, I was particularly attracted to wolves and Nordic dogs. I shared the Fondness of the Siberian Husky, but did not forget the first impressions about wolves collected since my childhood. The wolf was then: bad and ferocious.
Times change and today I discover that it is neither more evil nor more ferocious than humans, ergo, I must be fair in front of nature and therefore I prefer wolves.
In my 38 years of this life, I have not seen a wolf in freedom, the ones I have observed in zoos, have very sad looks and are denatured in their abilities and potentialities, when I compare them with those seen in videos or films. . This is a shame, but it is the sad reality. Nevertheless, I am happy for the European groups who intend to save the wolf from a cruel fate.
It is true that man is often presented as a predator and irresponsible in his appetites, that is why he resembles the wolf, in part he is a rational animal, but the wolf even in the stories did not eat two people at once, because he is intelligent, it has instinct and existed before man.
From time immemorial, the wolf shared bread (food) with men. This fact is an approximation to the common union. Today it takes more than intentions to save him from fatal fate.
It is time to be consistent and learn more to better value (overvalue) the other manifestations of life that inhabit planet Earth. For this reason, it seems prudent to begin this humble collection of wolf material, with a reference that links the Wolf with Saint Francis of Assisi. Well, it is logical that there is communion between them. The Saint was the one who called the animals, simply, our younger brothers.
It belongs to the order of Carnivores and is part of the Canidae family. There is the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and the Red Wolf (Canis rufus).
International Conference on the Wolf:
Conclusions of the III Ecological Conference on the Iberian Wolf
We transcribe the material incorporated into the CICONIA website http://pagina.de/Ciconia and which deals with, among other issues, the positioning of the environmental movement towards the conservation of the Iberian Wolf.
Said Conference was organized by CODA, in Moaña on October 31, 1997. Here are the conclusions:
1.- Short-term preparation of a state census of the LOBO population, following a reliable and proven methodology.
2.- Given the current lack of protective status in which the IBERIAN WOLF is found in most of its distribution, we consider essential the inclusion of this species as? Vulnerable? within the National Catalog of Threatened Species approved by Royal Decree 439/1990.
3.- In application of articles 31.1.b and 33.1 of Law 4/1989 on the Conservation of Natural Spaces and Wild Flora and Fauna, the classification of the Wolf as a? Vulnerable? it entails the strict prohibition of authorizing the hunting of this species in any of its forms.
4.- In compliance with article 31. 3 of the aforementioned Law 4/1989, each of the different Autonomous Communities that have populations of IBERIAN WOLF, must approve the corresponding Conservation Plan as soon as possible, after submitting it to period of public exposure.
5.- This Plan must include, at least:
5.1. The necessary economic compensation for the damage that the species may cause. For this, it is necessary to establish compensatory methods appropriate to the reality of each territory.
5.2. The annual preparation of the inventory of the wolf population in each Autonomous Community, establishing the appropriate conservative measures to the particularities of each population.
5.3 The implementation of recovery plans for the existing vestigial wolf cores south of the Duero River, in compliance with the Habitats Directive. On the other hand, taking measures for the conservation of fragile populations settled in humanized environments and a special consideration in the periphery of the Iberian area of distribution.
5.4. Monitoring of wolf-bearing areas and application of measures that lead to the eradication of any action that could compromise their conservation, such as carrying out hunts against the WOLF, capturing cubs in burrows, use of non-selective methods such as poisons, ropes and traps. , etc.
5.5. A management program in which the guidelines are designed in which to frame the measures aimed at controlling wolf populations. This control should only be carried out by technicians and specialized nursery.
5.6. Adoption of preventive measures in order to avoid and / or minimize the existence of damage caused or attributed to the WOLF. This is especially important in relation to the control of wandering, feral or feral dogs, as well as the improvement of the habitat and of the livestock management and protection systems.
5.7. The implementation of educational measures and cultural awareness, which allow overcoming the current negative feelings towards the WOLF, predominant in the vast majority of human populations existing in the area of distribution of the IBERIAN WOLF.
6.- As the IBERIAN WOLF has a shared distribution area among multiple Autonomous Communities, in addition to Portugal, we urge the Ministry of the Environment to draw up a Coordination Plan that coordinates the different Autonomous Plans at the state level (in application of the Article 81 of Royal Decree 439/1990) and coordinating them with those launched by Portugal.
7.- One of the greatest dangers currently facing the WOLF is the fragmentation and isolation of its populations due to the barrier effect of certain infrastructures such as highways, train tracks, hunting fences, etc. In order to avoid such fragmentation, we propose the following measures:
7.1 Avoid as much as possible, especially through the search for less impactful routes, the construction of new communication routes that cross the wolf populations and that may foreseeably lead to their fragmentation. In its construction, corrective measures such as specific steps for fauna and protective fences, as well as their maintenance, must be included.
7.2. Enforce current regulations at the state level (Law 4/1989) and develop them at the regional level in relation to the installation of new hunting fences.
7.3. Opening of? Steps? in the existing hunting fences that allow the passage of wolves.
7.4 Establish preventive measures for the mortality of fauna in bypass channels of hydraulic infrastructures.
8.- Due to the great incidence that the different causes of unnatural mortality of the WOLF have in the conservation of the species, it is necessary to take the following measures:
*** Compliance with the strict prohibition of the use of all non-selective hunting methods listed in Annex III of Royal Decree 1095/1989 (traps, snares, traps, etc.). For this, the non-granting of exceptional authorizations by the Autonomous Communities is essential.
*** Follow-up of all the hunts and hunts carried out in the WOLF distribution area, through the assistance of the nursery and Civil Guard that warn of the existence of wolves and the strict prohibition of their hunting, especially in the populations located south of the Douro River.
9.- Include as Special Conservation Zones in the Natura 2,000 network the distribution areas of the LOBO south of the Duero River. It is essential to urgently undertake a recovery plan for the WOLF in these areas, mainly in the Sierra Morena and the Sierra de San Pedro, considering the possibility of its reintroduction.
10.- Research on the WOLF should be consolidated, with priority attention to defining its genetic situation in the Iberian Peninsula, the biological role it plays
in each region, the improvements of its habitat and the dynamics of occupation of its area, in addition to knowing its biological uniqueness.
11.- Given the need to have specialized personnel in everything related to the conservation of the IBERIAN WOLF, it is necessary to initiate measures aimed at the formation of the currently existing nursery in wolf-dog areas. The training of this nursery, as well as that of other specific personnel, should focus on aspects such as monitoring WOLF populations, identifying damage caused by this species, etc.
12.- In order to avoid the multiple damages caused by wandering and feral dogs, it is recommended to avoid their existence.
13.- Given the current situation of illegal hunting of WOLVES in all distribution areas, it is recommended to increase the economic amount of the sanctions against poaching and the immediate suppression of hunting for commercial purposes (auctions).
14.- As in other cases, require compliance with the regulations on access to environmental information in relation to the management of the LOBO.
"Parasitic Diseases of Wild Mammals" by J. W. Davis and R. C Anderson Ed. Acribia.
"Reproduction of animals" by Aristotle Ed. Clásica Gredos.
"The Latin American Bible" Ed. San Pablo.
"Encyclopedia of the dog" Salvat Editores, S. A.
"You have to howl like Wolves" by Virtus B. Dröscher Sudamericana Planeta.
"Selected poems" by Rubén Darío Universal Classics Edicomunicación S. A.
"Parallel Lives" by Plutarco Classics Universal Planet.
"Ecology according to Leonardo" by José Carlos Corbatta Independent Ed.
"Barcelona Zoo - Museum of Zoology" Barcelona, Spain.
"Conclusions of the III Ecological Conference on the Iberian Wolf" Conference organized by CODA, in Moaña on October 31, 1997. See: CICONIA http://pagina.de/Ciconia
* Dr. Jose Carlos Corbatta
Lawyer. Teacher, gives courses and seminars.
Author of the book "Ecology according to Leonardo". E.I.A.